- December 4, 2020
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The political turmoil the Parthian Empire, as aforementioned, was also a significant factor attributing to the lack of open war during the early. A Long, Long Way. At that point, Trajan formally incorporated the title Parthicus into his name to his victory, along with the phrase. Outbreak of Trajan’s Parthian War In c.109 yet another civil war broke out in Parthia, with Shah Osroes I gaining control of the west of the empire and Vologases III the east. Unable to beat back the Roman infantry in an uphill battle, the Parthians were routed. The Arsacid dynasty or Arshakuni, ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from 12 to 428. But Trajan … As a result of the battle, Macrinus was forced to seek peace, paying the Parthians a huge sum and abandoning the invasion of Mesopotamia that Caracalla had begun a year before. While Armenia Minor had become a client state and incorporated into the Roman Empire proper during the 1st century AD, Greater Armenia remained an independent kingdom under the Arsacid dynasty. He crossed the Tigris, reaffirmed his conquest of Adiabene and proceeded to Ctesiphon, the most important capital of the Parthian Empire. According to some modern historians, the aim of the campaign of 116 was to achieve a "preemptive demonstration" aiming not toward the conquest of Parthia, but for tighter Roman control over the Eastern trade route. , As far as the sources allow a description of this campaign, it seems that one Roman division crossed the Tigris into Adiabene, sweeping south and capturing Adenystrae; a second followed the river south, capturing Babylon; Trajan himself sailed down the Euphrates from Dura-Europos – where a triumphal arch was erected in his honour – through Ozogardana, where he erected a "tribunal" still to be seen at the time of Julian the Apostate's campaigns in the same area. The region, including the crucial of Nisibis, was conquered and Septimius was granted the title Parthicus by the Senate. In support of a claimant, Galbinus briefly entered Parthian land with his army. Pacorus and Labienus defeated the Roman governor of Syria and overran the province. As the Romans became more established as a power, peace came slowly to an end. In certain occasion, warfare had a direct impact on cultural development. Continuing his march, Trajan crossed the Tigris River using boats and reached the city of Babylon, before returning to Antioch to pass the winter. The wars were ended by the Arab Muslim Conquests, which led to the fall of the Sasanian Empire and huge territorial losses for the Byzantine Empire, shortly after the end of the last war between them. Trajan argued that this act was a violation of treaty. Instead, his family was based in North Africa, of possible Berber or Punic descent. He placed permanent garrisons along the way to secure the territory.  He had recruited Palmyrene units into his army, including a camel unit,  therefore apparently procuring Palmyrene support to his ultimate goal of annexing Charax. The entire diplomatic history between the two states is too complex.  , He continued southward to the Persian Gulf, when, after his fleet escaped a tidal bore on the Tigris,  he received the submission of Athambelus, the ruler of Charax. War in the East. Trajan was Roman emperor from 98 to 117.  Quietus discharged his commission successfully, so much that the war was afterward named after him – Kitus being a corruption of Quietus. Relief on the Arch of Septimius Severus, on which Septimius' victories against Parthia are commenorated. On the other hand, Rome’s wars with Parthia had a profound military influence its military, particularly in the strengthening of cavalry in eastern Roman armies. With Caesar’s successful campaign in Gaul, Crassus knew that wealth alone was not enough. The current king of Armenia, Exedares, had been crowned by the Parthian king, Osroes, and had sworn loyalty to Parthia. In 191, Septimius was assigned general of the Legions of Pannonia, southwest of modern Hungary. Osroes I was a Parthian contender, who ruled the western portion of the Parthian Empire from 109 to 129, with a brief interruption from 116 to 117. In 113 AD Trajan turned his sights to Parthia (now north-eastern Iran), with which Rome had had previous conflicts, mainly over the control of Armenia. However, the Parthian King, Volgases IV, had greater ambitions. It is at this timeframe that our stories begin. However, he did not success in establishing his line on the throne, and various Arsacid members of different lineages ruled until the accession of Vologases II, who succeeded in establishing his own line on the Armenian throne, which would rule the country until it was abolished by the Sasanian Empire in 428. In: Maricq: A precise description of events in Judaea at the time being impossible, due to the non-historical character of the Jewish (rabbinic) sources, and the silence of the non-Jewish ones: William David Davies,Louis Finkelstein,Steven T. Katz, eds., Histoire des Juifs, Troisième période, I – Chapitre III – Soulèvement des Judéens sous Trajan et Adrien, R. P. Longden, "Notes on the Parthian Campaigns of Trajan". Trajan holds his position in history as one of the greatest emperors of Rome. In no sense was Rome the headquarters for the prosecution of the Parthian war. Once again, Ventidius charged his men downhill. Unlike Rome’s other rivals - the tribal societies in Europe, Parthia’s realm was vast, its culture was sophisticated, and its wealth was enormous. Returning to Armenia, Antony’s army was harassed by the Parthians and met with disease. The war was ended the following year after a heavy battle at Nisibis, with the Romans paying a huge sum of war reparations to the Parthians. Trajan's Parthian war. This was the beginning of an "international role" for the Parthian empire, a phase that also entailed contacts with Rom…  Trajan was forced to withdraw his army in order to put down the revolts. The Armenian compromise served its purpose, but nothing was arranged for the deposition of a king.  Another hypothesis is that the rulers of Charax had expansionist designs on Parthian Babylon, giving them a rationale for alliance with Trajan. Nisibis was recaptured and Edessa was sacked. The Arsacid (Parthian) dynasty was no more. His forces carried out a campaign of massacres in the northern regions of the Parthian Empire before withdrawing to Asia Minor, where he was assassinated in April 217. Like their first encounter, Ventidius held his position on a hill. Roman failure to maintain control of Mesopotamia. After re-taking and burning Seleucia, Trajan then formally deposed the Parthian king Osroes I and put his own puppet ruler Parthamaspates on the throne. This was the beginning of an "international role" for the Parthian empire, a phase that also entailed contacts with Rome. In Roman history, Parthia’s legacy is its role as the great rival of the east. The war was initially successful for the Romans, but due to a series of setbacks, including wide-scale rebellions in the Eastern Mediterranean and North Africa, as well as Trajan's … The consulship was bestowed by him as a … He then dispatched his generals who recaptured the region. In 113, Trajan embarked on his last campaign, provoked by Parthia's decision to put an unacceptable king on the throne of Armenia, a kingdom over which the two great empires had shared hegemony since the time of Nero some fifty years earlier. Mithridates II conducted unsuccessful negotiations with Sullafor a Roman… Trajan died in 117 AD, after returning home. Various vassal kingdoms and allied nomadic nations in the form of buffer states and proxies also played a role. In 113, Trajan decided that the moment was ripe to resolve the "eastern question" once and for all time by the decisive defeat of Parthia and the annexation of Armenia; his conquests marked a deliberate change of Roman policy towards Parthia, and a shift of emphasis in the "grand strategy" of the empire. Having come to the narrow strip of land between the Euphrates and the Tigris, he then dragged his fleet overland into the Tigris, capturing Seleucia and finally the Parthian capital of Ctesiphon. It was a bad decision with far reaching consequences. , The chronology of subsequent events is uncertain, but it is generally believed that early in 115 Trajan launched a Mesopotamian campaign, marching down towards the Taurus mountains in order to consolidate territory between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Further wars of annexation followed under Lucius Verus and Septimius Severus. He added Dacia, Arabia, Armenia, and Mesopotamia to the empire, waging war against Decebalus and the Parthians. It is also interesting to note that despite three captures of the Parthian capital by the Romans, it was the fourth capture, by an internal foe, that ultimately ended the empire. For the whole of his reign he contended with the rival king Vologases III based in the eastern parts. 1–35.  Also, there was the propaganda value of an Eastern conquest that would emulate, in Roman fashion, those of Alexander the Great. Captured Parthian. Vologases III was king of the Parthian Empire from 110 to 147. , Other historians reject these motives, as the supposed Parthian "control" over the maritime Far Eastern trade route was, at best, conjectural and based on a selective reading of Chinese sources – trade by land through Parthia seems to have been unhampered by Parthian authorities and left solely to the devices of private enterprise. While Septimius could not claim total victory in Mesopotamia, his conquest of Ctesiphon marked the near end of the Parthian Empire. In Judea, Antigonus was driven out and the Roman-backed King Herrod was installed as ruler. In the same year, Niger was defeated by Septimius in three consecutive battles fought in Asia Minor. Trajan's Parthian campaign, also known as the Trajan's Parthian War, was engaged by Roman emperor Trajanin the year 115 against the Parthian Empire in Mesopotamia. In later centuries it came to be called commonly, but incorrectly, the Legio Fulminatrix, the Thundering Legion. Mesopotamia was the name of two distinct Roman provinces, the one a short-lived creation of the Roman Emperor Trajan in 116–117 and the other established by Emperor Septimius Severus in ca. E. J. Keall, "Parthian Nippur and Vologases' Southern Strategy: A Hypothesis".  The intended campaign, therefore, was immensely costly from its very beginning.  One can explain the campaign by the fact that, for the Romans, their empire was in principle unlimited, and that Trajan only took advantage of an opportunity to make idea and reality coincide. . Most of the territories were eventually returned to the Parthians after peace was made. the Parthians had conquered nearly all of the Seleucid Empire, including its significant cities in Mesopotamia. When the Emperor Pertinax was assassinated in 193, Septimius seized his chance. Against Parthia, Trajan’s justification for war was that in 110 AD, the Parthian King removed the Roman-appointed king of Armenia and installed Axidares, his own nominee, the throne. [Lepper, F.  While Trajan moved from west to east, Lusius Quietus moved with his army from the Caspian Sea towards the west, both armies performing a successful pincer movement,  whose apparent result was to establish a Roman presence into the Parthian Empire proper, with Trajan taking the northern Mesopotamian cities of Nisibis and Batnae and organizing a province of Mesopotamia, including the Kingdom of Osrhoene – where King Abgaros VII submitted to Trajan publicly  – as a Roman protectorate. In an attempt to erase the first defeat, Pacorus once again led his cavalry in an uphill attack, supported by horse archers. The emperor's Parthian War, which extended the empire to its largest size yet, has never been … The Parthians fell back. The fortress city of Hatra, on the Tigris in his rear, continued to hold out against repeated Roman assaults. The Roman Republic, interestingly, had also been expanding at roughly the same timeframe. The Dacian wars have always come in for much attention due to the fame and attraction of Trajan's Column. Officially declared by the Senate optimus princeps, Trajan is remembered as a successful soldier-emperor who presided over the greatest military expansion in Roman history, leading the empire to attain its maximum territorial extent by the time of his death. Ventidius immediately attacked Labienus’ army, which withdrew to his Parthian ally.  , In contrast, the next prominent Roman figure in charge of the repression of the Jewish revolt, the equestrian Marcius Turbo, who had dealt with the rebel leader from Cyrene, Loukuas,  retained Hadrian's trust, eventually becoming his Praetorian Prefect. His service to Sulla’s campaign gave his career a good start, after which, he amassed his wealth through skillful property ownership and made his way through politics. As with all historical accounts, there is a degree of uncertainty and incompleteness that must be considered. T. Olajos, "Le monument du triomphe de Trajan en Parthie. A propos de la guerre parthique de Trajan. After intervening to overthrow rulers in client kingdoms adjoining Parthia, he invaded in 216 using an abortive wedding proposal to the Parthian king's daughter as a casus belli. In 161, quarrels over Armenia escalated into another Roman-Parthian war. The Roman–Parthian Wars (54 BC – 217 AD) were a series of conflicts between the Parthian Empire and the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. Unlike their Parthian predecessors, the Sassanids were more centralized and more aggressive. His grand scheme for Armenia and Mesopotamia were ultimately "cut short by circumstances created by an incorrect understanding of the strategic realities of eastern conquest and an underestimation of what insurgency can do." However, despite suffering punitive expeditions by the Roman Empire, the Parthian victory at the Battle of Carrhae has remained a lasting memory in the history that symbolizes the limit of Roman power, even though significance of the battle has been exaggerated. The importance of the wars in political history can be further extended to cultural history. Exactly what role did the wars between Rome and Parthia play in history? Roman-Parthian relations dominated international policy in the classical near east. This fact reminds us that both Rome and Parthia had overextended and each had little power left to conquer each other. Nonetheless, the usual affairs of conflict continued. According to one account, the Parthians King Orodes received Crassus’s corpse and poured molten gold into his mouth…if this was the case, it would have been an ironic end to a man’s hunt for greed. As both a general and a highly acclaimed commander, he was notably one of the most accomplished Berber statesmen in ancient Roman history. F. A. Lepper presented French historian J. Guey’s opinion that “Trajan… “Publius Ventidius. Michael Alexander Speidel: "Bellicosissimus Princeps". Fame, the reason provided by Cassius Dio, is most often put forth, but modern historians have also asserted that the war was actually started for economic reasons. The Parthians were an Iranian nomadic group whose homelands were located in central Asia, near Bactria. He first stopped in Athens where Parthian envoys greeted him with olive branches, a signal for peace. Constant Roman invasion of northern Mesopotamia resulted in an increased Romanization of cities such as Nisibis. Volgases then continued to attack Roman Syria, defeating a local army there. Ventidius took a force of 11 legions, including a large number of slingers to defend against horse archery, for the Romans had learned that unsupported heavy infantry in the open were highly vulnerable. Our story now comes to the life and times of the Emperor Septimius Severus. The last conflict between Rome and Parthia occurred at around 217, when a series of political complications escalated into war. He declared Babylon a new province of the Empire and had his statue erected on the shore of the Persian Gulf,  after which he sent the Senate a laurelled letter declaring the war to be at a close and bemoaning that he was too old to go on any further and repeat the conquests of Alexander the Great. 198, which ranged between the Roman and the Sassanid empires, until the Muslim conquests of the 7th century. The detail of the battle, which appears to be inconclusive, is not exactly certain. Regrettably, due to the scarcity of Parthian sources, the narrative will be told mainly from the Roman perspective. In May of 101, Trajan launched his first campaign into the Dacian kingdom, crossing to the northern bank of the Danube and defeating the Dacian army at Tapae (see Second Battle of Tapae), near the Iron … It was originally levied by Julius Caesar in 58 BC, and the legion accompanied him during the Gallic Wars until 49 BC. As a military rival, however, Parthia was at most an average threat to the Romans. It was the first series of conflicts in what would be 682 years of Roman–Persian Wars. Trajan was born in a family from Spain, and as such became the first emperor of non-Italian descent. The Roman general Lusius Quietus responded promptly by capturing and sacking Edessa. Eager for battle, the Parthian army consisting of a large number of nobles in cataphract armor, attacked upward while all of a sudden, Ventidius’ men charged downward. Trajan's Parthian war. In Rome, Ventidius was hailed. Consummate in their military tactics and organization the Parthians were also excellent horse breeders and trainers. But that’s another story. Main article: Trajan's Parthian campaign. In southern Mesopotamia, Trajan learned that the cities he conquered in the north were revolting. However, the Roman senate itself was slowly losing control to three powerful men who came to dominate Roman politics: Caesar, Pompey and Crassus – together known as the First Triumvirate. , Trajan sent two armies towards Northern Mesopotamia: the first, under Lusius Quietus, recovered Nisibis and Edessa from the rebels, probably having King Abgarus deposed and killed in the process,  while a second, under Appius Maximus Santra (probably a governor of Macedonia), was defeated, with Santra being killed. At Issus, the defeated Niger was killed while fleeing to Parthia. , However, as Trajan left the Persian Gulf for Babylon – where he intended to offer sacrifice to Alexander in the house where he had died in 323 BC  – a sudden outburst of Parthian resistance, led by a nephew of the Parthian king, Sanatruces, who had retained a cavalry force, possibly strengthened by the addition of Saka archers,  imperilled Roman positions in Mesopotamia and Armenia, something Trajan sought to deal with by forsaking direct Roman rule in Parthia proper, at least partially. Against Parthia, Trajan’s justification for war was that in 110 AD, the Parthian King removed the Roman-appointed king of Armenia and installed Axidares, his own nominee, the throne. Early in the second century, Emperor Trajan, like a latter-day Alexander, had electrified the whole Greek world by a major campaign against the Parthians. “The King and the War-Lords: Romano-Parthian Relations Circa 64-53 B.C.”, Seaver, James. E. J. 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