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It is said that Dio is not one of the best ancient historians and his Roman history, due to its sheer size, is often imprecise and superficial in its analysis. His narratives show the hand of the practiced soldier and politician; the language is correct and free from affectation. "Dio and Josephus: Parallel Analyses.". Following his second consulship, while in his later years, Dio returned to his native country, where he eventually died. Cassius Dio describes chaos in the streets as the fire took hold, as people ran about asking each other how the blaze started. Much of the work is preserved in later histories by John VIII Xiphilinus (to 146 bc and then from 44 bc to ad 96) and Johannes Zonaras (from 69 bc to the end). Tacitus, Roman orator and public official, probably the greatest historian and one of the greatest prose stylists who wrote in the Latin language. 2010. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Written in ancient Greek over 22 years, Dio's work covers approximately 1,000 years of history. Cassius Dio (164-c.235): Roman senator of Greek descent, historian, author of a very important Roman History. Lucius Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek and Roman origin. ", Kordos, Jozef. It has also been assumed that there was no political agenda behind the work, and that Dio's principal value to us is as a reliable copyist, who mediated the works of other, and better sources. Lange, C. H. and Madsen, J. M. 2016 (eds.). The version of Dio's work that survives today is quite composite since his history does not survive in its entirety: The first 21 books have been partially reconstructed based on fragments from other works as well as the epitome of Zonaras who used Dio's Roman History as a main source. His father, M. Cassius Apronianus, was proconsul of Lycia and Pamphylia, and legate of Cilicia and Dalmatia. Written in ancient Greek over 22 years, Dio's work covers … In contrast, Cassius Dio, writing at the end of the 1st century AD, is certain, in his account, that Nero ordered the fire to recreate the burning of Troy as he envied Priam’s downfall. "Cassius Dio on Julia Domna: A Study of the Political and Ethical Functions of Biographical Representation in Dio's Roman History. He published 80 volumes of history on ancient Rome, beginning with the arrival of Aeneas in Italy. Gleason, Maud. Build a clearly structured argument firmly grounded in the primary sources. Many of his 80 books have survived intact, or as fragments, providing modern scholars with a detailed perspective on Roman history. ]—died 235), Roman administrator and historian, the author of Romaika, a history of Rome, written in Greek, that is a most important authority for the last years of the republic and the early empire. Dio was also proconsul in Africa and Pannonia. Eisman, M. M. 1977. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Elagabalus's full birth name was probably (Sextus) Varius Avitus Bassianus, the last name being apparently the surname of the Emesene family. Translated by Ernest Cary. Dio was either the grandfather or great-grandfather of Cassius Dio, consul in 291.. After this he obtained the proconsulship of Africa and, again on his return, was sent as legate successively to Dalmatia and Pannonia. It is likely that Cassius had exposure to other ancient writing about Boudicca that has since been lost. In such a desperate situation, without reliable channels of information, it is easy to see how rumours could start. . Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. ... to Greek and Roman writers' views on Roman power. Then choose ONE of the following topics and address it in your paper. 1914–1927. His account of the late republic and the age of the Triumvirs is especially full and is interpreted in light of the battles over supreme rule in his own day. Arrian is recognized as one of the most renowned authors of the 2nd-century CE Roman Empire for his extensive works on Alexander the Great (356-323 BCE). Although this was likely a propagandistic “puff piece”, Dio’s historical narrative is notable for the historian’s interest in such omens. One look at them will show how much more detailed Caesar is. The books that follow, Books 36 through 54, are nearly all complete; they cover the period from 65 BC to 12 BC, or from the eastern campaign of Pompey and the death of Mithridates to the death of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. The work is one of only three written Roman sources that document the British revolt of AD 60–61 led by Boudica. Dio wrote a history of Rome from the beginning to his own lifetime under Alexander Severus. 2016. Severus Alexander held Dio in the highest esteem and reappointed him to the position of consul, even though his caustic nature irritated the Praetorian Guards, who demanded his life. Dio's writing was underpinned by a set of personal circumstances whereby he was able to observe significant events of the Empire in the first person, or had direct contact with the key figures who were involved. Elagabalus was born no later than 204 CE, though perhaps as early as 203, to Sextus Varius Marcellus and Julia Soaemias Bassiana, who had probably married around the year 200 (and no later than 204). Lucius Cassius Dio (/ˈkæʃəs ˈdaɪoʊ/; c. 155 – c. 235)[note 1] or Dio Cassius (Greek: Δίων Κάσσιος)[note 3] was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek and Roman origin. Cassius Dio 47 Cassius Dio. 1991. Cassius Dio was born in Bithynia around 165 AD. 3-4). Cassius Dio's Roman history was written in the early third century and has been judged by many scholars to be fairly reliable since Dio has used equally reliable sources to back up his findings such as official records. "Cassius Dio and the Greek World. Cassius Dio describes chaos in the streets as the fire took hold, as people ran about asking each other how the blaze started. He was also a proconsul of Africa, and legate of Dalmatia and Pannonia. His history of Rome consisted of 80 books, beginning with the landing of Aeneas in Italy and ending with his own consulship. ", This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 11:23. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Dio-Cassius, JewishEncyclopedia.com - Biography of Dio Cassius, Encyclopædia Iranica - Biography of Dio Cassius, Dio Cassius - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). He was a senator under Commodus and governor of Smyrna following the death of Septimius Severus; he became a suffect consul in approximately the year 205. Scholarship on this part of Dio's work is scarce but the importance of the Early Republic and Regal period to Dio's overall work has recently been underlined. "Matricide Revisited: Dramatic and Rhetorical Allusion in Tacitus, Suetonius and Cassius Dio.". The son of Cassius Apronianus, governor of Dalmatia and Cilicia under Marcus Aurelius, and grandson of Dio Chrysostom, Dio Cassius went to Rome (180) after his father’s death and became a member of the Senate. Dio always maintained a love for his hometown of Nicaea, calling it "his home", as opposed to his description of his villa in Italy ("my residence in Italy"). For the greater part of his life, Dio was a member of the public service.  Although many scholars do deem Dio to be reliable, he has also been known to be not reliable. Corrections? "Thucydidean Elements in Cassius Dio.". According to some scholars, such as Millar (Millar, F., Alain Gowing, who has edited Cassius Dio, argues that the evidence for, Gowing, who adopts it; Claudius, however, is usually a, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Prof. Cary's Introduction at LacusCurtius, Works by Cassius Dio at Perseus Digital Library, Dio Cassius: the Manuscripts of "The Roman History", Dionis Romanarum historiarum libri XXIII, à XXXVI ad LVIII vsque (The Roman History), Editio princeps of Xiphilinus's Epitome (Robert Estienne, Paris, 1551), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cassius_Dio&oldid=991308880, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2017, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The fragments of the first 34 books, preserved in the second section of the same work by Constantine, entitled “Of Embassies.” These are known under the name of, Aalders, G. J. D. 1986. Loeb Classical Library. Fromentin, V., Bertrand, E. Coltelloni-Trannoy, M., Molin, M and Urso, G. It has also been assumed that there was no political agenda behind the work, and that Dio's principal value to us is as a reliable copyist, who mediated the works of other, and better sources. ", Baltussen, Han. It has also been assumed that there was no political agenda behind the work, and that Dio's principal value to us is as a reliable copyist, who mediated the works of other, and better sources. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). They relate events from 69 bc to ad 46, but there is a large gap after 6 bc. Dio published a Roman History (Ῥωμαϊκὴ Ἱστορία, Historia Romana), in 80 books, after twenty-two years of research and labour. Lucius Cassius Dio was the son of Cassius Apronianus, a Roman senator and member of the gens Cassia, who was born and raised at Nicaea in Bithynia. Severus Alexander. Omissions? Lucius is often identified as Dio's praenomen, but a Macedonian inscription, published in 1970, reveals the abbreviation, "Cl. Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus (c. 69 – c. 130/140 CE), better known simply as Suetonius, was a Roman writer whose most famous work is his biographies of the first 12 Caesars. The books cover a period of approximately 1,400 years, beginning with the tales from Roman mythology of the arrival of the legendary Aeneas in Italy (c. 1200 BC) and the founding of Rome by his descendant Romulus (753 BC); as well as the historic events of the republican and imperial eras through 229 AD. 2002. Mallan, C. T. 2013. E-mail Citation » The original Greek with the only complete English translation, which is flawed because of its age. Most famously, the senatorial historian Cassius Dio – who provided the most reliable account of Severus’ life and times – also compiled an account of the omens that foretold of his rise to power. Dio Cassius, also spelled Dion Cassius or (in Byzantine sources) Dio Cocceianus, in full Lucius Cassius Dio, (born c. 150, Nicaea, Bithynia [now İznik, Tur.  Recently, however, this Roman historian has received a thorough reevaluation and his complexity and sophisticated political and historical interpretations have been highlighted.. Press. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. ", McDougall, Iain. note Here, he fought against the Sarmatians, a coalition of Iranian tribes that had settled in Central Europe. Among his works are the Germania, describing the Germanic tribes, the Historiae (Histories), concerning the Roman Empire from ad 69 to 96, and the later Dio Cassius, on the other hand, was born 100 years after the rebellion in 163CE and his writing was clearly influenced by Tacitus’ work. The last book covers the period from 222 to 229 (the first half of the reign of Alexander Severus). Jump to: 1 ... should make reliable calculations for either event. Updates? ]—died 235), Roman administrator and historian, the author of Romaika, a history of Rome, written in Greek, that is a most important authority for the last years of the republic and the early empire. (eds.) He published 80 volumes of history on ancient Rome, beginning with the arrival of Aeneas in Italy. Arrian modeled his writing style after the 4th-century … Plutarch was an immensely learned man as well as a prolific author, but sometimes indiscriminately so, and with a strong tendency to somewhat trivial moralising. • Dio Cassius, History of Rome (Sourcebook pp. Cassius Dio lived more than a century after the death of Agrippina,so was writing at some distance in time away from her life.As for Claudius,had the Praetorian Guard not … Byzantine tradition maintains that Dio's mother was the daughter or sister of the Greek orator and philosopher, Dio Chrysostom; however, this relationship has been disputed. The fragments of the first 36 books, as they have been collected, consist of four kinds: Dio attempted to emulate Thucydides in his writing style. Dio's work has often been deprecated as unreliable and lacking any overall political aim. Of the 20 subsequent books in the series, there remain only fragments and the meager abridgement of John Xiphilinus, a monk from the 11th century. According to Cassius Dio, a reliable author, Clodius Albinus occupied an unknown office in Dacia (modern Romania). We assume that he used other writers material and public documents in his research. An E-Book of Cassius Dio's 'Roman History, Vol. Until the first century BC, Dio provides only a summary of events; after that period, his accounts become more detailed. V' The Project Gutenberg EBook of Dio's Rome, Volume V., Books 61-76 (A.D. 54-211), by Cassius Dio This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. The volumes documented the subsequent founding of Rome, the formation of the Republic, and the creation of the Empire, up until 229 AD. Caesar's thoroughness is worthy of particular note, since the alternatives of Caesar would be Plutarch, Suetonius, and Appian (I guess Cassius Dio too, but I have difficulty keeping a straight face when I read "an actual historian like Cassius Dio"). "Identity Theft: Doubles and Masquerades in Cassius Dio's Contemporary History. SOURCE 2: Dio's Roman History VIII, By Cassius Dio, a Roman Historian (153 AD-230 AD) In stature she was very tall, in appearance most terrifying, in the glance of her eye most fierce, and her voice was harsh; a great mass of the tawniest hair fell to her hips; around her neck was a large golden necklace; and she wore a tunic of divers colours over which a thick mantle was fastened with a brooch. Before his final retirement to Bithynia he recorded the defeat of the Parthians by the Sasanian Ardašīr I in 224, emphasizing the danger of Ardašīr’s having established a foothold in Mesopotamia and Syria and his threat to reconquer all the territory that had formerly belonged to Persian empire (80. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The volumes documented the subsequent founding of Rome (753 BC), the formation of the Republic (509 BC), and the creation of the Empire (27 BC), up until 229 AD. Another man is named in the same context: Pescennius Niger, who … Books 36–60 survive in large part. The era of Cleopatra is in books 42–51, with scattered references to the queen. 99-103) Read and consider the sources listed above, noting points on which they agree and disagree. 2018 (eds.). Previously, issues … Cassius Dio Cocceianus was a Greek from Bithynia who became a senator and was eventually a consul, once under Macrinus and another time under Severus Alexander, in 229. This volume offers an introduction to the life and work of the 3rd-century-AD Greco-Roman senator and historian Cassius Dio, whose work, although imperfectly preserved in 80 books, is of fundamental importance to our understanding of Roman history. He states in Roman History 62.16 that “Nero set his heart on accomplishing â€¦ his desire, to make an end of the city and realm during his life â€¦ He secretly sent out men â€¦ to set fire.” Dio Cassius, also spelled Dion Cassius or (in Byzantine sources) Dio Cocceianus, in full Lucius Cassius Dio, (born c. 150, Nicaea, Bithynia [now İznik, Tur.  Books 22-35 are sparsely covered by fragments. Burden-Strevens, C. and Lindholmer, M. O. [note 4] Although Dio was a Roman citizen, he wrote in Greek. 2011. * only as reliable as his sources (which were VERY unreliable) * after his dismissal in ad119 he did not have access to the imperial records * rarely named and made little attempt to judge sources (just conveyed their content accurately) * focussed on the personalities not the events * … p 96-98) of the same book, that the accounts of Nero by Tacitus, Cassius Dio and Suetonius have enough similarities to indicate the use of common source material. ", presumably Claudius. Dio's style, where there appears to be no corruption of the text, is generally clear though full of Latinisms. Dio’s exact birth name is unknown, although it is probable that his full birth name was Claudius Cassius Dio, or potentially Cassius Cio Cocceianus, although that translation is less likely. He has co-edited Cassius Dio: Greek Intellectual and Roman Politician (2016). Dio, Cassius. Lucius Flavius Arrianus, commonly known as Arrian (86 - c. 160 CE) was a Greek historian, philosopher, and statesman from Nicomedia, capital of the Roman province of Bithynia. In Book 52 there is a long speech by Maecenas, whose advice to Augustus reveals Dio’s own vision of the empire. His work is far more than a mere compilation, though: it tells the story of Rome from the perspective of a senator who has accepted the imperial system of the 2nd and 3rd centuries. Book 55 contains a considerable gap, while Books 56 through 60 (which cover the period from AD 9 through 54) are complete and contain events from the defeat of Varus in Germany to the death of Claudius. It is said that Dio is not one of the best ancient historians and his Roman history, due to its sheer size, is often imprecise and superficial in its analysis. He was granted a second consulship by Severus Alexander, in 229, shortly before retirement. Reviews for Cassius Dio. The abridgment of Xiphilinus, as now extant, commences with Book 35 and continues to the end of Book 80: it is a very indifferent performance and was made by order of the emperor Michael VII Doukas. Like Arrian of Nicomedia and Appian of Alexandria, Cassius Dio (164-c.235) was a Greek by birth and a Roman by conviction, and one of the great historians of Antiquity. Dio is also the sole reliable, athough succinct, source on the campaign of Caracalla (78 (77.12.12). Roman history. Cassius Dio, like all the ancient writers, never mentions sources. The lack of reliable source information The Roman historian Cassius Dio, writing in the early 3rd century ad, wrote revealingly about the lack of reliable information about the period of the early emperors: ‘Events cannot be reported like earlier ones. "Dio and His Sources for Caesar’s Campaigns in Gaul. Dio’s industry was great, and the various offices he held gave him opportunities for historical investigation. Shotter also describes in Appendix IV (Shotter, Nero. From the time of Commodus (ruled AD 180–192), Dio is very circumspect in his conveyance of the events that he witnessed. By Macrinus he was entrusted with the administration of Pergamum and Smyrna, and on his return to Rome he was made consul.
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